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Friday, July 30, 2010

Fat Cells Play Key Role in Development of Type 2 Diabetes

Cellular changes in fat tissue, not the immune system, lead to the "hyper-inflammation" characteristic of obesity-related glucose
intolerance and type 2 diabetes, according to new research from
the University of Cincinnati (UC).

Cancer and cell biology experts say this new discovery about the cellular mechanisms behind glucose intolerance may provide a
different target for drugs to treat type 2 diabetes as well as insights
into how aggressive cancers form.

The study is reported in the July 7, 2010, issue of the scientific
journal Cell Metabolism.

For this study, the research team looked at the role of a specific
gene known as protein kinase C (PKC)-zeta, which has been
implicated as a key cellular contributor to malignant tumor growth.
Using a preclinical animal model, they found that PKC-zeta had
a dual role in the molecular signaling that leads to inflammation,
switching from acting as a regulator of inflammation to a proinflammation agent in different circumstances.

"This finding is quite novel because current drug development
efforts target immune cells (macrophages, T-cells) to eliminate this hyperinflammation. Our research suggests obesity-related glucose intolerance has nothing to do with the immune system. It may be
more effective to target adipocytes (fat cells)," explained the investigators from the University of Cincinnati's cancer and cell
biology department.

In normal cells, they explain, PKC-zeta regulates the balance
between cellular inflammatory responses to maintain glucose
control. During obesity-induced inflammation, however, the function
of PKC-zeta changes and the molecule begins to promote
inflammation by causing adipocytes to secrete a substance (IL-6)
that travels in large quantities to the liver to cause insulin resistance."We believe a similar mechanism of action is at play
in malignant tumor development.

Now we are trying to understand how PKC-zeta regulates IL6 to
better determine how we can manipulate the protein to help prevent diabetes and cancer," they add.

This University of Cincinnati team is working with investigators at
UC's Drug Discovery Center to screen compounds that will inhibit PKC-zeta to be used in further research.

Funding for this research was provided by grants from the National Institutes of Health, American Diabetes Association, UMass Diabetes Endocrinology Research Center and Marie Curie Foundation.
Scientists from the University of Massachussetts also participated
in the study.

Story Source:

University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center (2010, July 12).
Fat cells play key role in development of type 2 diabetes.

Wednesday, July 21, 2010

Decaf Coffee Side Effects

It is a well known fact that caffeine is the most widely consumed drug all around the world. If you are a coffee addict and are thinking of switching to decaffeinated coffee, it won't be of much help. Apart from caffeine, there are a significant number of chemical compounds found in coffee, which have stronger effects on the body. Components like caffeol, diterpenes and chlorogenic acid, are a few of the common active constituents present in coffee. There are already a number of health disorders that are a result of regular caffeine consumption, but even if it is decaffeinated, a small amount of the active constituents still remain. The amount of these remaining constituents in the decaffeinated coffee, are more than enough to cause serious health issues. Thus, despite the lower levels of caffeine, there is a fair amount of other phytochemicals, which are present even after the decaf process. Find out, what are the decaf coffee side effects from the content mentioned below.

Side Effects of Decaf Coffee

Even though the product cover may say that the coffee has gone through the decaf process and is free from all the constituents which lead to various health problems, the risks still remain. No company, ensures, 100% removal of harmful chemicals from coffee and thus, even if you have decaf coffee, it is not completely decaf. There are many decaf coffee side effects which are observed after regular consumption of decaf coffee and a few of them are mentioned in the following paragraphs, so take a look.


* It is scientifically proved, that coffee is highly acidic in nature and it stimulates the gastric acids to hyper-secrete.
* However, decaf coffee has been shown to increase the acidity in the body to a much larger extent. This is because, many a times, decaffeinated coffee process is carried out from Robusta beans, which is a type of coffee bean.
* This acidity leads to, ulcers, acid reflux and can lead to a bigger risk of heartburns than any other fluids. This can be one of the grave effects of decaf coffee. Also, find out what are some of the side effects of caffeine.

Heart Problems

* Decaf coffee also raises the risk of heart attacks, despite of lower levels of caffeine in the coffee.
* It is said that drinking decaf coffee, increases the non-essential fatty acids in the blood by about 15% and drives the production of LDL cholesterol. It also raises 8% of the apolipoprotein B, which is a protein associated with cholesterol linked to cardiovascular diseases.
* When the levels of LDL in the blood increase, there is a bigger chance of heart attacks and cardiovascular arrests. This is definitely one of the fatal decaf coffee side effects, which acts as a slow poison to many caffeine addicts. More on caffeine and blood pressure.
* The Robusta beans which are used to make decaf coffee, have a higher content of diterpenes. These stimulate the production of fatty acids in the body and thus, increase the cholesterol deposition around the heart.


* According to current research, when you consume a regular coffee drink, there is a loss of almost 5 milligrams of calcium. This can lead to weak bones and development of osteoporosis, which is one of the most severe decaf coffee side effects.
* Hence, if you have a regular cup of coffee, there can be 300 to 400 mg of caffeine consumed daily, that can double the risk of a hip fracture.
* Osteoporosis can also occur due to low bone density, which is a result of these chemicals present in decaf coffee.
* The high amounts of acidity, increase the risk of developing osteoporosis. Some other decaf coffee side effects are Glaucoma, rheumatoid arthritis, organ damage and cancer.
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This article is for informational and educational purposes only; It is not
intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

Monday, July 19, 2010

Polyphenols in Red Wine And Green Tea Halt Prostate Cancer Growth

In what could lead to a major advance in the
treatment of prostate cancer, scientists now
know exactly why polyphenols in red wine
and green tea inhibit cancer growth.
This new discovery, published online in The

FASEB Journal (Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology - Stanford University Libraries), explains how antioxidants in red wine and
green tea produce a combined effect to disrupt an important cell signaling pathway necessary for prostate cancer growth.

This finding is important because it may lead to the development of drugs that
could stop or slow cancer progression, or improve current treatments.

"Not only does SphK1/S1P signaling pathway play a role in prostate

cancer, but it also plays a role in other cancers, such as colon cancer,

breast cancer, and gastric cancers," reported The FASEB Journal.
"Even if future studies show that drinking red wine and green tea isn't

as effective in humans as we hope, knowing that the compounds in

those drinks disrupts this pathway is an important step toward

developing drugs that hit the same target."

Scientists conducted in vitro experiments which showed that the

inhibition of the sphingosine kinase- 1/sphingosine 1-phosphate

(SphK1/S1P) pathway was essential for green tea and wine

polyphenols to kill prostate cancer cells. Next, laboratory subjects genetically altered to develop a human prostate cancer tumor were either treated or not treated with green tea and wine polyphenols.

The treated laboratory subjects showed reduced tumor growth as a result of the inhibited SphK1/S1P pathway. To mimic the preventive effects of polyphenols, another experiment used three groups of laboratory subjects given drinking water, drinking water with a green
tea compound known as EGCg, or drinking water with a different
green tea compound, polyphenon E. Human prostate cancer cells
were implanted in the laboratory subjects and results showed a

dramatic decrease in tumor size in the mice drinking the EGCg

or polyphenon E mixtures.

"The profound impact that the antioxidants in red wine and green tea

have on our bodies is more than anyone would have considered just
25 years ago," the researchers added. "As long as they are taken in

moderation, all signs show that red wine and green tea may be

ranked among the most potent 'health foods' we know.

Source: Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology publishes The FASEB Journal. Stanford University Libraries

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